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Physical Backup and Restoration

gs_basebackup

Background

After MogDB is deployed, problems and exceptions may occur during database running. gs_basebackup, provided by MogDB, is used to perform basic physical backup. gs_basebackup copies the binary files of the database on the server using a replication protocol. To remotely execute gs_basebackup, you need to use the system administrator account. gs_basebackup supports hot backup and compressed backup.

NOTE:

  • gs_basebackup supports only full backup.
  • gs_basebackup supports hot backup and compressed backup.
  • gs_basebackup cannot back up tablespaces containing absolute paths on the same server. This is because the absolute path is unique on the same machine, and brings about conflicts. However, it can back up tablespaces containing absolute paths on different machines.
  • If the functions of incremental checkpoint and dual-write are enabled, gs_basebackup also backs up dual-write files.
  • If the pg_xlog directory is a soft link, no soft link is created during backup. Data is directly backed up to the pg_xlog directory in the destination path.
  • If the backup permission is revoked during the backup, the backup may fail or the backup data may be unavailable.
  • MogDB does not support version upgrade.

Prerequisites

  • The MogDB database can be connected.
  • User permissions are not revoked during the backup.
  • In the pg_hba.conf file, the replication connection is allowed and the connection is established by a system administrator.
  • If the Xlog transmission mode is stream, the number of max_wal_senders must be configured to at least one.
  • If the Xlog transmission mode is fetch, the wal_keep_segments parameter must be set to a large value so that logs are not removed before the backup ends.
  • During the restoration, backup files exist in the backup directory on all the nodes. If backup files are lost on any node, them to it from another node.

Syntax

  • Display help information.

    Codegs_basebackup -? | --help
  • Display version information.

    Codegs_basebackup -V | --version

Parameter Description

The gs_basebackup tool can use the following types of parameters:

  • -D directory

Directory for storing backup files. This parameter is mandatory.

  • Common parameters

    • -c, –checkpoint=fast|spread

    Sets the checkpoint mode to fast or spread (default).

    • -l, –label=LABEL

    Adds tags for the backup.

    • -P, –progress

    Enables the progress report.

    • -v, –verbose

    Enables the verbose mode.

    • -V, –version

    Prints the version and exits.

    • -?, –help

    Displays gs_basebackup command parameters.

    • -T, –tablespace-mapping=olddir=newdir

    During the backup, the tablespace in the olddir directory is relocated to the newdir directory. For this to take effect, olddir must exactly match the path where the tablespace is located (but it is not an error if the backup does not contain the tablespaces in olddir). olddir and newdir must be absolute paths. If a path happens to contain an equal sign (=), you can escape it with a backslash (). This option can be used multiple times for multiple tablespaces.

    • -F, –format=plain|tar

    Sets the output format to plain (default) or tar. If this parameter is not set, the default value –format=plain is used. The plain format writes the output as a flat file, using the same layout as the current data directory and tablespace. When the cluster has no extra tablespace, the entire database is placed in the target directory. If the cluster contains additional tablespaces, the primary data directory will be placed in the target directory, but all other tablespaces will be placed in the same absolute path on the server. The tar mode writes the output as a tar file in the target directory. The primary data directory is written to a file named base.tar, and other tablespaces are named after their OIDs. The generated .tar package must be decompressed using the gs_tar command.

    • -X, –xlog-method=fetch|stream

    Sets the Xlog transmission mode. If this parameter is not set, the default value –xlog-method=stream is used. The required write-ahead log files (WALs) are included in the backup. This includes all WALs generated during the backup. In fetch mode, WAL files are collected at the end of the backup. Therefore, the wal_keep_segments parameter must be set to a large value so that logs are not removed before the backup ends. If it has been rotated when the log is to be transmitted, the backup fails and is unavailable. In stream mode, WALs are streamed when a backup is created. This will open a second connection to the server and start streaming WALs while the backup is running. Therefore, it will use up to two connections configured by the max_wal_senders parameter. As long as the client can receive WALs, no additional WALs need to be stored on the host.

    • -x, –xlog

    Equivalent to using -X with the fetch method.

    • -Z –compress=level

    Enables gzip compression for the output of the tar file and sets the compression level (0 to 9, where 0 indicates no compression and 9 indicates the best compression). The compression is available only when the tar format is used. The suffix .gz is automatically added to the end of all .tar file names.

    • -z

    Enables gzip compression for tar file output and uses the default compression level. The compression is available only when the tar format is used. The suffix .gz is automatically added to the end of all .tar file names.

    • -t, –rw-timeout

    Sets the checkpoint time limit during backup. The default value is 120s. If the full checkpoint of the database is time-consuming, you can increase the value of rw-timeout.

  • Connection parameters

    • -h, –host=HOSTNAME

    Specifies the host name of the machine on which the server is running or the directory for the Unix-domain socket.

    • -p, –port=PORT

    Specifies the port number of the database server.

    You can modify the default port number using this parameter.

    • -U, –username=USERNAME

    Specifies the user that connects to the database.

    • -s, –status-interval=INTERVAL

    Specifies the time for sending status packets to the server, in seconds.

    • -w,–no-password

    Never issues a password prompt.

    • -W, –password

    Issues a password prompt when the -U parameter is used to connect to a local or remote database.

Example

gs_basebackup -D /home/test/trunk/install/data/backup -h 127.0.0.1 -p 21233
INFO:  The starting position of the xlog of the full build is: 0/1B800000. The slot minimum LSN is: 0/1B800000.

Restoring Data from Backup Files

If a database is faulty, restore it from backup files. gs_basebackup backs up the database in binary mode. Therefore, you can directly and replace the original files or start the database on the backup database.

img NOTE:

  • If the current database instance is running, a port conflict may occur when you start the database from the backup file. In this case, you need to modify the port parameter in the configuration file or specify a port when starting the database.
  • If the current backup file is a primary/standby database, you may need to modify the replication connections between the master and slave databases. That is, replconninfo1 and replconninfo2 in the postgresql.conf file.

To restore the original database, perform the following steps:

  1. Stop the database server. For details, see Administrator Guide.
  2. the original database and all tablespaces to another location for future use.
  3. Delete all or part of the files from the original database.
  4. Use the database system user rights to restore the required database files from the backup.
  5. If a link file exists in the database, modify the link file so that it can be linked to the correct file.
  6. Restart the database server and check the database content to ensure that the database is restored to the required status.

img NOTE:

  • Incremental restoration from backup files is not supported.
  • After the restoration, check that the link file in the database is linked to the correct file.

gs_probackup

Background

gs_probackup is a tool used to manage MogDB database backup and restoration. It periodically backs up the MogDB instances so that the server can be restored when the database is faulty.

  • It supports the physical backup of a standalone database or a primary node in a database.
  • It supports the backup of contents in external directories, such as script files, configuration files, log files, and dump files.
  • It supports incremental backup, periodic backup, and remote backup.
  • It supports settings on the backup retention policy.

Prerequisites

  • The MogDB database can be connected.
  • To use PTRACK incremental backup, manually add enable_cbm_tracking = on to postgresql.conf.

Important Notes

  • The backup must be performed by the user who runs the database server.
  • The major version number of the database server to be backed up must be the same as that of the database server to be restored.
  • To back up a database in remote mode using SSH, install the database of the same major version on the local and remote hosts, and run the ssh-copy-id remote_user@remote_host command to set an SSH connection without a password between the local host backup user and the remote host database user.
  • In remote mode, only the subcommands add-instance, backup, and restore can be executed.
  • Before running the restore subcommand, stop the gaussdb process.

Command Description

  • Print the gs_probackup version.

    gs_probackup -V|--version
    gs_probackup version
  • Display brief information about the gs_probackup command. Alternatively, display details about parameters of a specified subcommand of gs_probackup.

    gs_probackup -?|--help
    gs_probackup help [command]
  • Initialize the backup directory in backup-path. The backup directory stores the contents that have been backed up. If the backup-path backup path exists, it must be empty.

    gs_probackup init -B backup-path [--help]
  • Initialize a new backup instance in the backup directory of backup-path and generate the pg_probackup.conf configuration file, which saves the gs_probackup settings of the specified data directory pgdata-path.

    gs_probackup add-instance -B backup-path -D pgdata-path --instance=instance_name
    [-E external-directories-paths]
    [remote_options]
    [--help]
  • Delete the backup content related to the specified instance from the backup-path directory.

    gs_probackup del-instance -B backup-path --instance=instance_name
    [--help]
  • Add the specified connection, compression, and log-related settings to the pg_probackup.conf configuration file or modify the existing settings. You are not advised to manually edit the pg_probackup.conf configuration file.

    gs_probackup set-config -B backup-path --instance=instance_name
    [-D pgdata-path] [-E external-directories-paths] [--archive-timeout=timeout]
    [--retention-redundancy=retention-redundancy] [--retention-window=retention-window] [--wal-depth=wal-depth]
    [--compress-algorithm=compress-algorithm] [--compress-level=compress-level]
    [-d dbname] [-h hostname] [-p port] [-U username]
    [logging_options] [remote_options]
    [--help]
  • Add the backup-related settings to the backup.control configuration file or modify the settings.

    gs_probackup set-backup -B backup-path --instance=instance_name -i backup-id
    [--note=text] [pinning_options]
    [--help]
  • Display the content of the pg_probackup.conf configuration file in the backup directory. You can specify –format=json to display the information in JSON format. By default, the plain text format is used.

    gs_probackup show-config -B backup-path --instance=instance_name
    [--format=plain|json]
    [--help]
  • Display the contents of the backup directory. If instance_name and backup_id are specified, detailed information about the backup is displayed. You can specify –format=json to display the information in JSON format. By default, the plain text format is used.

    gs_probackup show -B backup-path
    [--instance=instance_name [-i backup-id]] [--archive] [--format=plain|json]
    [--help]
  • Create a backup for a specified database instance.

    gs_probackup backup -B backup-path --instance=instance_name -b backup-mode
    [-D pgdata-path] [-C] [-S slot-name] [--temp-slot] [--backup-pg-log] [-j threads_num] [--progress]
    [--no-validate] [--skip-block-validation] [-E external-directories-paths] [--no-sync] [--note=text]
    [--archive-timeout=timeout]
    [logging_options] [retention_options] [compression_options]
    [connection_options] [remote_options] [pinning_options]
    [--help]
  • Restore a specified instance from the backup copy in the backup-path directory. If an instance to be restored is specified, gs_probackup will look for its latest backup and restore it to the specified recovery target. Otherwise, the latest backup of any instance is used.

    gs_probackup restore -B backup-path --instance=instance_name
    [-D pgdata-path] [-i backup_id] [-j threads_num] [--progress] [--force] [--no-sync] [--no-validate] [--skip-block-validation]
    [--external-mapping=OLDDIR=NEWDIR] [-T OLDDIR=NEWDIR] [--skip-external-dirs] [-I incremental_mode]
    [recovery_options] [remote_options] [logging_options]
    [--help]
  • Merge all incremental backups between the specified incremental backup and its parent full backup into the parent full backup. The parent full backup will receive all merged data, while the merged incremental backup will be deleted as redundancy.

    gs_probackup merge -B backup-path --instance=instance_name -i backup_id
    [-j threads_num] [--progress] [logging_options]
    [--help]
  • Delete a specified backup or delete backups that do not meet the current retention policy.

    gs_probackup delete -B backup-path --instance=instance_name
    [-i backup-id | --delete-expired | --merge-expired | --status=backup_status]
    [--delete-wal] [-j threads_num] [--progress]
    [--retention-redundancy=retention-redundancy] [--retention-window=retention-window]
    [--wal-depth=wal-depth] [--dry-run]
    [logging_options]
    [--help]
  • Verify that all files required for restoring the database exist and are not damaged. If instance_name is not specified, gs_probackup verifies all available backups in the backup directory. If instance_name is specified and no additional options are specified, gs_probackup verifies all available backups for this backup instance. If both instance_name and backup-id or recovery objective-related options are specified, gs_probackup checks whether these options can be used to restore the database.

    gs_probackup validate -B backup-path
    [--instance=instance_name] [-i backup-id]
    [-j threads_num] [--progress] [--skip-block-validation]
    [--recovery-target-time=time | --recovery-target-xid=xid | --recovery-target-lsn=lsn | --recovery-target-name=target-name]
    [--recovery-target-inclusive=boolean]
    [logging_options]
    [--help] 

Parameter Description

Common parameters

  • command

Specifies subcommands except version and help: init, add-instance, del-instance, set-config, set-backup, show-config, show, backup, restore, merge, delete, and validate.

  • -?, –help

Displays help information about the command line parameters of gs_probackup and exits.

Only –help can be used in subcommands; -? is forbidden.

  • -V, –version

Prints the gs_probackup version and exits.

  • -B backup-path, –backup-path=backup-path

Backup path.

System environment variable: $BACKUP_PATH

  • -D pgdata-path, –pgdata=pgdata-path

Path of the data directory.

System environment variable: $PGDATA

  • –instance=instance_name

Instance name.

  • -i backup-id, –backup-id=backup-id

Unique identifier of a backup.

  • –format=format

Specifies format of the backup information to be displayed. The plain and JSON formats are supported.

Default value: plain

  • –status=backup_status

Deletes all backups in a specified state. The states are as follows:

  • OK: Backup is complete and valid.
  • DONE: Backup has been completed but not verified.
  • RUNNING: Backup is in progress.
  • MERGING: Backups are being merged.
  • DELETING: Backup is being deleted.
  • CORRUPT: Some backup files are damaged.
  • ERROR: Backup fails due to an unexpected error.
  • ORPHAN: Backup is invalid because one of its parent backups is corrupted or lost.
  • -j threads_num, –threads=threads_num

Sets the number of concurrent threads for the backup, restoration, and combination processes.

  • –archive

Displays WAL archiving information.

  • –progress

Displays progress.

  • –note=text

Adds a note to the backup.

Backup-related parameters

  • -b backup-mode, –backup-mode=backup-mode

Specifies the backup mode. The value can be FULL or PTRACK.

FULL: creates a full backup. The full backup contains all data files.

PTRACK: creates a PTRACK incremental backup.

  • -C, –smooth-checkpoint

Expands checkpoints within a period of time. By default, gs_probackup attempts to complete checkpoints as soon as possible.

  • -S slot-name, –slot=slot-name

Specifies the replication slot for WAL stream processing.

  • –temp-slot

Creates a temporary physical replication slot for WAL stream processing in the backup instance to ensure that all required WAL segments are still available during the backup.

The default slot name is pg_probackup_slot, which can be changed using the –slot/-S option.

  • –backup-pg-log

Includes the log directory in the backup. This directory typically contains log messages. By default, the log directory is not included.

  • -E external-directories-paths, –external-dirs=external-directories-paths

Includes the specified directory in the backup. This option is useful for backing up scripts in external data directories, sql dumps, and configuration files. To back up multiple external directories, use colons (:) to separate their paths in Unix.

Example: -E /tmp/dir1:/tmp/dir2

  • –skip-block-validation

Disables block-level verification to speed up backup.

  • –no-validate

Skips the automatic verification when the backup is complete.

  • –no-sync

Disables backup file synchronization to the disk.

  • –archive-timeout=timeout

Specifies timeout interval for streaming processing, in seconds.

Default value: 300

  • -t rwtimeout

The timeout period for connecting to the database in seconds.

Default value: 120

Restoration-related parameters

  • -I, –incremental-mode=none|checksum|lsn

Reuses the valid pages available in PGDATA if they are not modified.

Default value: none

  • –external-mapping=OLDDIR=NEWDIR

During restoration, the external directory contained in the backup is moved from OLDDIR to NEWDIR. OLDDIR and NEWDIR must be absolute paths. If the path contains an equal sign (=), use a backslash () to escape. This option can be specified for multiple directories.

  • -T OLDDIR=NEWDIR, –tablespace-mapping=OLDDIR=NEWDIR

Relocates the tablespace from the OLDDIR directory to the NEWDIR directory during the restoration. OLDDIR and NEWDIR must be absolute paths. If the path contains an equal sign (=), use a backslash () to escape. This parameter can be specified multiple times for multiple tablespaces. This parameter must be used together with –external-mapping.

  • –skip-external-dirs

Skips the external directories in the backup that are specified using the –external-dirs option. The contents of these directories will not be restored.

  • –skip-block-validation

Skips block-level verification to speed up verification. During the automatic verification before the restoration, only file-level verification is performed.

  • –no-validate

Skips the backup verification.

  • –force

Specifies the invalid state that allows ignoring backup. This flag can be used if data needs to be restored from a damaged or invalid backup. Exercise caution when using it.

Recovery objective-related parameters (recovery_options)

img NOTE: Currently, continuous WAL archiving PITR cannot be configured. Therefore, parameter usage is restricted as follows: To use continuously archived WAL logs for PITR, perform the following steps:

  1. Replace the target database directory with the physical backup files.
  2. Delete all files in the database directory pg_xlog/.
  3. Copy the archived WAL log file to the pg_xlog file. (Or you can configure restore_command in the recovery.conf file to skip this step.)
  4. Create the recovery command file recovery.conf in the database directory and specify the database recovery degree.
  5. Start the database.
  6. Connect to the database and check whether the database is recovered to the expected status. If the expected status is reached, run the pg_xlog_replay_resume() command so that the primary node can provide services externally.
  • –recovery-target-lsn=lsn

Specifies LSN to be restored. Currently, only the backup stop LSN can be specified.

  • –recovery-target-name=target-name

Specifies named savepoint to which data is restored. You can obtain the savepoint by viewing the recovery-name column in the backup.

  • –recovery-target-time=time

Specifies time to which data is restored. Currently, only recovery-time can be specified.

  • –recovery-target-xid=xid

Specifies transaction ID to which data is restored. Currently, only recovery-xid can be specified.

  • –recovery-target-inclusive=boolean

When this parameter is set to true, the recovery target will include the specified content.

When this parameter is set to false, the recovery target will not include the specified content.

This parameter must be used together with –recovery-target-name, –recovery-target-time, –recovery-target-lsn, or –recovery-target-xid.

Retention-related parameters (retention_options)

img NOTE: The following parameters can be used together with the backup and delete commands.

  • –retention-redundancy=retention-redundancy

Number of full backups retained in the data directory. The value must be a positive integer. The value 0 indicates that the setting is disabled.

Default value: 0

  • –retention-window=retention-window

Specifies the retention period. The value must be a positive integer. The value 0 indicates that the setting is disabled.

Default value: 0

  • –wal-depth=wal-depth

Latest number of valid backups that must be retained on each timeline to perform the PITR capability The value must be a positive integer. The value 0 indicates that the setting is disabled.

Default value: 0

  • –delete-wal

Deletes unnecessary WAL files from any existing backup.

  • –delete-expired

Deletes the backups that do not comply with the retention policy defined in the pg_probackup.conf configuration file.

  • –merge-expired

Merges the oldest incremental backup that meets the retention policy requirements with its expired parent backup.

  • –dry-run

Displays the status of all available backups. Expired backups will not be deleted or merged.

Fixed backup-related parameters (pinning_options)

img NOTE: To exclude certain backups from the established retention policy, you can use the following parameters with the backup and set-backup commands.

  • –ttl=interval

Specifies a fixed amount of time to back up data from the restoration time. The value must be a positive integer. The value 0 indicates that the backup is canceled.

Supported unit: ms, s, min, h, d (default value: s)

For example, –ttl=30d.

  • –expire-time=time

Specifies the timestamp when the backup is invalid. The time stamp must comply with the ISO-8601 standard.

For example, –expire-time='2020-01-01 00:00:00+03'.

Log-related parameters (logging_options)

Log levels: verbose, log, info, warning, error, and off.

  • –log-level-console=log-level-console

Sets the level of logs to be sent to the console. Each level contains all the levels following it. A higher level indicates fewer messages sent. If this parameter is set to off, the log recording function of the console is disabled.

Default value: info

  • –log-level-file=log-level-file

Sets the level of logs to be sent to the log file. Each level contains all the levels following it. A higher level indicates fewer messages sent. If this parameter is set to off, the log file recording function is disabled.

Default value: off

  • –log-filename=log-filename

Specifies the name of the log file to be created. The file name can use the strftime mode. Therefore, %-escapes can be used to specify the file name that changes with time.

For example, if the pg_probackup-%u.log mode is specified, pg_probackup generates a log file each day of the week, with %u replaced by the corresponding decimal number, that is, pg_probackup-1.log indicates Monday. pg_probackup-2.log indicates Tuesday, and so on.

This parameter is valid if the –log-level-file parameter is specified to enable log file recording.

Default value: “pg_probackup.log”

  • –error-log-filename=error-log-filename

Specifies the name of the log file that is used only for error logs. The specifying method is the same as that of the –log-filename parameter.

It is used for troubleshooting and monitoring.

  • –log-directory=log-directory

Specifies the directory where log files are created. The value must be an absolute path. This directory is created when the first log is written.

Default value: $BACKUP_PATH/log

  • –log-rotation-size=log-rotation-size

Specifies the maximum size of a log file. If the maximum size is reached, the log file will be circulated after the gs_probackup command is executed. The help and version commands will not lead to a log file circulation. The value 0 indicates that the file size-based loop is disabled.

The unit can be KB, MB, GB, or TB. The default unit is KB.

Default value: 0

  • –log-rotation-age=log-rotation-age

Maximum life cycle of a log file. If the maximum size is reached, the log file will be circulated after the gs_probackup command is executed. The help and version commands will not lead to a log file circulation. The $BACKUP_PATH/log/log_rotation directory saves the time of the last created log file. The value 0 indicates that the time-based loop is disabled.

Supported unit: ms, s, min, h, d (default value: min)

Default value: 0

Connection-related parameters (connection_options)

img NOTE: The following parameters can be used together with the backup command.

  • -d dbname, –pgdatabase=dbname

Specifies the name of the database to connect to. This connection is only used to manage the backup process. Therefore, you can connect to any existing database. If this parameter is not specified in the command line, the PGDATABASE environment variable, or the pg_probackup.conf configuration file, gs_probackup attempts to obtain the value from the PGUSER environment variable. If the PGUSER variable is not set, the value is obtained from the current user name.

System environment variable: $PGDATABASE

  • -h hostname, –pghost=hostname

Specifies the host name of the system on which the server is running. If the value begins with a slash (/), it is used as the directory for the UNIX domain socket.

System environment variable: $PGHOST

Default value: local socket

  • -p port, –pgport=port

Specifies the TCP port or local Unix domain socket file name extension on which the server is listening for connections.

System environment variable: $PGPORT

Default value: 5432

  • -U username, –pguser=username

Specifies the username of the host to be connected.

System environment variable: $PGUSER

  • -w, –no-password

Never issues a password prompt. The connection attempt fails if the host requires password verification and the password is not provided in other ways. This parameter is useful in batch jobs and the scripts that require no user password.

  • -W password, –password=password

User password for database connection. If the host uses the trust authentication policy, the administrator does not need to enter the -W parameter. If the -W parameter is not provided and you are not a system administrator, the system will ask you to enter a password.

Compression-related parameters (compression_options)

imgNOTE: The following parameters can be used together with the backup command.

  • –compress-algorithm=compress-algorithm

Specifies the algorithm used to compress data file.

The value can be zlib, pglz, or none. If zlib or pglz is set, compression is enabled. By default, the compression function is disabled.

Default value: none

  • –compress-level=compress-level

Specifies the compression level. Value range: 0-9

  • 0 indicates no compression.
  • 1 indicates that the compression ratio is the lowest and processing speed the fastest.
  • 9 indicates that the compression ratio is the highest and processing speed the slowest.
  • This parameter can be used together with –compress-algorithm.

Default value: 1

  • –compress

Compresses with –compress-algorithm=zlib and –compress-level=1.

Remote mode-related parameters (remote_options)

imgNOTE: The following are parameters that remotely run gs_probackup through SSH, and can be used together with the add-instance, set-config, backup, and restore commands.

  • –remote-proto=protocol

Specifies the protocol used for remote operations. Currently, only the SSH protocol is supported. Valid value:

ssh: enables the remote backup mode through SSH. This is the default.

none: The remote mode is disabled explicitly.

If –remote-host is specified, this parameter can be omitted.

  • –remote-host=destination

Specifies the IP address or host name of the remote host to be connected.

  • –remote-port=port

Specifies the port number of the remote host to be connected.

Default value: 22

  • –remote-user=username

Specifies the remote host user for SSH connection. If this parameter is not specified, the user who initiates the SSH connection is used.

Default value: the current user.

  • –remote-path=path

Specifies the installation directory of gs_probackup in the remote system.

Default value: current path

  • –ssh-options=ssh_options

Specifies the character string of the SSH command line parameter.

Example: –ssh-options='-c cipher_spec -F configfile'

Backup Process

  1. Initialize the backup directory. Create the backups/ and wal/ subdirectories in the specified directory to store backup files and WAL files respectively.

    gs_probackup init -B backup_dir
  2. Add a new backup instance. gs_probackup can store backups of multiple database instances in the same backup directory.

    gs_probackup add-instance -B backup_dir -D data_dir –instance instance_name
  3. Create a backup for a specified database instance. Before performing an incremental backup, you must create at least one full backup.
gs_probackup backup -B backup_dir –instance instance_name -b backup_mode
  1. Restore data from the backup of a specified DB instance.

    gs_probackup restore -B backup_dir –instance instance_name -D pgdata-path -i backup_id

Troubleshooting

Problem Description Cause and Solution
ERROR: query failed: ERROR: canceling statement due to conflict with recovery
Cause: The operation performed on the standby node is accessing the storage row. The corresponding row is modified or deleted on the primary node, and the Xlog is replayed on the standby node. As a result, the operation is canceled on the standby node.
Solution:
1. Increase the values of the following parameters:
max_standby_archive_delaymax_standby_streaming_delay
2. Add the following configuration item:
hot_standby_feedback = on

PITR Recovery

Background

When a database breaks down or needs to be rolled back to a previous state, the point-in-time recovery (PITR) function of MogDB can be used to restore the database to any point in time after the backup and archive data is generated.

NOTE:

  • PITR can only be restored to a point in time after the physical backup data is generated.
  • Only the primary node can be restored using PITR. The standby node needs to be fully built to synchronize data with the primary node.

Prerequisites

  • Full data files have been physically backed up.
  • WAL log files have been archived.

PITR Recovery Process

  1. Replace the target database directory with the physical backup files.
  2. Delete all files in the database directory pg_xlog/.
  3. the archived WAL log file to the pg_xlog file. (Or you can configure restore_command in the recovery.conf file to skip this step.)
  4. Create the recovery command file recovery.conf in the database directory and specify the database recovery degree.
  5. Start the database.
  6. Connect to the database and check whether the database is recovered to the expected status.
  7. If the expected status is reached, run the pg_xlog_replay_resume() command so that the primary node can provide services externally.

Configuring the recovery.conf File

Archive Recovery Configuration

  • restore_command = string

The shell command is used to obtain the archived WAL files among the WAL file series. Any %f in the string is replaced by the name of the file to retrieve from the archive, and any %p is replaced by the path name to it to on the server. Any %r is replaced by the name of the file containing the last valid restart point.

For example:

restore_command = 'cp /mnt/server/archivedir/%f %p'
  • archive_cleanup_command = string

This option parameter declares a shell command that is executed each time the system is restarted. archive_cleanup_command provides a mechanism for deleting unnecessary archived WAL files from the standby database. Any %r is replaced by the name of the file containing the last valid restart point. That is the earliest file that must be kept to allow recovery to be restartable, so all files older than %r can be safely removed.

For example:

archive_cleanup_command = 'pg_archivecleanup /mnt/server/archivedir %r'

If multiple standby servers need to be recovered from the same archive path, ensure that WAL files are not deleted from any standby server before the recovery.

  • recovery_end_command = string

This parameter is optional and is used to declare a shell command that is executed only when the recovery is complete. recovery_end_command provides a cleanup mechanism for future replication and recovery.

Recovery Object Configuration

  • recovery_target_name = string

This parameter declares that the name is recovered to a recovery point created using pg_create_restore_point().

For example:

recovery_target_name = 'restore_point_1'
  • recovery_target_time = timestamp

This parameter declares that the name is recovered to a specified timestamp.

For example:

recovery_target_time = '2020-01-01 12:00:00'
  • recovery_target_xid = string

This parameter declares that the name is recovered to a transaction ID.

For example:

recovery_target_xid = '3000'
  • recovery_target_lsn = string

This parameter declares that the name is recovered to the LSN specified by log.

For example:

recovery_target_lsn = '0/0FFFFFF'
  • recovery_target_inclusive = boolean

This parameter declares whether to stop the recovery after the recovery target is specified (true) or before the recovery target is specified (false). This declaration supports only the recovery targets recovery_target_time, recovery_target_xid, and recovery_target_lsn.

For example:

recovery_target_inclusive = true

NOTE:

  • Only one of the four configuration items recovery_target_name, recovery_target_time, recovery_target_xid, and recovery_target_lsn can be used at a time.
  • If no recovery targets are configured or the configured target does not exist, data is recovered to the latest WAL log point by default.